The beginning of archaeological studies dates back to very old times. However, the use and applications of disciplines such as physics, chemistry, metallurgy, geology, biology, biochemistry, material sciences, mathematics, statistics and computer sciences in archaeology have rapidly increased during the last fifty years. These studies have contributed to the development of an interdisciplinary cooperation and created a new concept called "Archaeometry". This name was given in 1958 by the Oxford group of scientists, who have been working on archaeological findings.

It is coined from archaeology and metric, meaning measurement (or system of measuring) of archaeological findings. The same group started to publish a journal called "Archaeometry" at the time. This journal is still being published twice a year successfully by the same group.